How to Train a GSLM from Scratch

Have you ever wondered how to create a Generative Spoken Language Model (GSLM) from scratch? Whether you're a developer or a language enthusiast, understanding how to train a GSLM can be an enriching experience. With a little effort and know-how, you can create a GSLM that can mimic human speech patterns, analyze patterns in text data, and discover new ways of understanding language.

At, we're committed to advancing the cutting edge of natural language processing technology, including developing and training GSLMs. In this article, we're going to share our advice for how to train a GSLM from scratch – everything from selecting your data set and choosing a training algorithm to fine-tuning and testing your new model. Let's get started!

Step 1: Collect Your Data

Before you begin training your GSLM, you need to have a large and diverse data set. The more text you have at your disposal, the richer and more varied your model will be. Some good sources for creating your data set include:

Once you have your data set, you'll need to preprocess it to make sure it is formatted correctly and free of errors. This includes things like removing punctuation, handling formatting inconsistencies, and ensuring that text is not cut off or truncated.

Step 2: Choose Your Training Algorithm

Once you have your data set ready, you'll need to select an algorithm for training your GSLM. Some popular algorithms to consider include:

Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses, and the one you choose will depend on your specific use case and the complexity of the language you're working with. For the purposes of this article, we'll be using an LSTM algorithm.

Step 3: Prepare Your Data for Training

Now that you have your data and your training algorithm, it's time to prepare your data for training. This involves splitting your data into training and validation sets and converting it into a form that can be input into your algorithm.

Data Splitting

When splitting your data into training and validation sets, it's important to have a large enough set of data for both. A common rule of thumb is to split the data into 80% training data and 20% validation data. This will ensure that your model has enough data to learn from but also has enough data to test its performance.

Data Conversion

For your data to be compatible with your algorithm, you will need to convert your text input into numerical vectors. This requires mapping each distinct word or piece of punctuation to an index in a large dictionary, then representing the sentences as a sequence of these indices. This process is called tokenization.

Once your data is tokenized, you will need to group the sequences of indices into batches that can be input into your algorithm. These batches ensure that the model learns from a more diverse set of input by shuffling the data input.

Step 4: Train Your GSLM

With your data prepared, algorithm chosen, and data set in hand, it's time to start training your GSLM. The amount of time required for training can vary widely depending on the size of your data set, complexity of your language, and compute resource availability.

Hyperparameter Tuning

Before you start training, you should select the optimal values for hyperparameters. A hyperparameter is a global setting of the model, controlling features such as the size of the hidden state of the LSTM, the size of the learning rate, or the dropout rate. We recommend starting with LSTMs having small sizes, and testing a grid of learning rates and dropout rates. Tuning hyperparameters is achieved through experimenting with different combinations until you find the values that create a model with the best performance.

Monitoring Model Performance

As your model trains, you should keep a close eye on its performance. Common performance metrics such as perplexity or accuracy can be used to measure the quality of the model. To prevent overfitting, and to have a more general model performance you may also use validation data to monitor the model, comparing it with the training data.


To mitigate data loss and enable that you'll not lose all progress made to the model training, you can create checkpoints of the weights of the models at regular intervals. This saves the state of the model, allowing you to stop and start training without losing progress or revert to a previous iteration.

Step 5: Fine-Tune Your Model

Once you have completed the initial training of your GSLM, it's time to fine-tune your model. Fine-tuning can help your model achieve even better performance by exposing the model to new datasets or a different learning environment. Some ways to fine-tune your model include:

Step 6: Evaluate Your Model

Finally, after training and fine-tuning your model, it's time to see how it performs. Some common evaluation metrics include perplexity, accuracy, and recall. The performance of your model is an indication of your model's effectiveness, and the consistency of its output with a test dataset is an indication of its reliability.


Training a GSLM from scratch can be a daunting task, but it is also a great opportunity to learn and experiment with natural language processing. At, our staff of experienced language experts and developers has been training GSLMs for years, leveraging best practices and refining techniques, and we hope that we've provided you with the tools and knowledge to do the same. With a well-crafted data set, a suitable training algorithm, and careful management of the training process, you'll be well on your way to developing a model that can think and speak like a human being.

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